Units of measurement

The following units of measurement a are applicable in ADR:

Measurement of

SI Unit b

Acceptable alternative unit

Relationship between units

 
Length
Area
Volume
Time
Mass
Mass density
Temperature
Temperature difference
Force
Pressure
Stress
Work
Energy
Quantity of heat
Power
Kinematic viscosity
Dynamic viscosity
Activity
Dose equivalent
m (metre)
m2 (square metre)
m3 (cubic metre)
s (second)
kg (kilogram)
kg/m3
K (kelvin)
K (kelvin)
N (newton)
Pa (pascal)
N/m2
J (joule)
W (watt)
m2/s
Pa.s
Bq (becquerel)
Sv (sievert)

--

-
l c (litre)
min (minute)
h (hour)
d (day)
g (gram)
t (ton)
kg/l
°C (degree Celsius)
°C (degree Celsius)
-
bar (bar)
N/mm2
kWh (kilowatt hours)
eV (electronvolt)
-
mm2/s
mPa.s
-
-
1 l = 10-3 m3
1 min = 60 s
1 h = 3 600 s
1 d = 86 400 s
1g = 10-3 kg
1 t = 103 kg
1 kg/l = 103 kg/m3
0 °C = 273.15 K
1 °C = 1 K
1 N = 1 kg.m/s2
1 Pa = 1 N/m2
1 bar = 105 Pa
1 N/mm2 = 1 MPa
1 kWh = 3.6 MJ
1 J = 1 N.m = 1 W.s
1 eV = 0.1602 Η 10-18J
1 W = 1 J/s = 1 N.m/s
1 mm2/s = 10-6 m2/s
1 mPa.s = 10-3 Pa.s

The following round figures are applicable for the conversion of the units hitherto used into SI Units.

Force

   

Stress

   

1 kg

=

9.807 N

1 kg/mm2

=

9.807 N/mm2

1 N

=

0.102 kg

1 N/mm2

=

0.102 kg/mm2

Pressure

           

1 Pa

=

1 N/m2

=

10-5 bar

=

1.02  10-5 kg/cm= 0.75  10-2 torr

1 bar

=

10Pa

=

1.02 kg/cm2

=

750 torr

1 kg/cm2

=

9.807  10Pa

=

0.9807 bar

=

736 torr

1 torr

=

1.33  10Pa

=

1.33  10-3 bar

=

1.36  10-3 kg/cm2

 

Energy, Work, Quantity of heat

1 J

=

1 N.m

=

0.278  10-6 kWh

=

0.102 kgm = 0.239  10-3 kcal

1 kWh

=

3.6  10J

=

367  10kgm

=

860 kcal

1 kgm

=

9.807 J

=

2.72  10-6 kWh

=

2.34  10-3 kcal

1 kcal

=

4.19  10J

=

1.16  10-3 kWh

=

427 kgm

Power

       

Kinematic viscosity

1 W

=

0.102 kgm/s

=

0.86 kcal/h

1 m2/s = 10St (Stokes)

1 kgm/s

=

9.807 W

=

8.43 kcal/h

1 St = 10-4 m2/s

1 kcal/h

=

1.16 W

=

0.119 kgm/s

 

 

Dynamic viscosity

1 Pa.s

=

1 N.s/m2

=

10 P (poise)

=

0.102 kg.s/m2

1 P

=

0.1 Pa.s

=

0.1 N.s/m2

=

1.02  10-2 kg.s/m2

1 kg.s/m2

=

9.807 Pa.s

=

9.807 N.s/m2

=

98.07 P

 

The decimal multiples and sub-multiples of a unit may be formed by prefixes or symbols, having the following meanings, placed before the name or symbol of the unit:

 

Factor

   

Prefix

Symbol

1 000 000 000 000 000 000

    1 000 000 000 000 000

         1 000 000 000 000

             1 000 000 000

                  1 000 000

                    1 000

                      100

                       10

                       0.1

                      0.01

                    0.001

0.000 001 
0.000 000 001

         0.000 000 000 001

      0.000 000 000 000 001

0.000 000 000 000 000 001

= 1018

= 1015

= 1012

= 109

= 106

= 103

= 102

= 101

= 10-1

= 10-2

= 10-3

= 10-6

= 10-9

= 10-12

= 10-15

= 10-18

quintillion quadrillion trillion billion million thousand hundred ten

tenth hundredth thousandth millionth billionth trillionth quadrillionth quintillionth

exa peta tera giga mega kilo hecto deca deci centi milli micro nano pico femto atto

E
P
T
G
M

k
h
da
d
c
m


n
p
f
a

NOTE: 10billion is United Nations usage in English. By analogy, so is 10-9 = 1 billionth.

Unless expressly stated otherwise, the sign "%" in ADR represents:
(a) In the case of mixtures of solids or of liquids, and also in the case of solutions and of solids
wetted by a liquid, a percentage mass based on the total mass of the mixture, the solution or the
wetted solid;
(b) In the case of mixtures of compressed gases, when filled by pressure, the proportion of the
volume indicated as a percentage of the total volume of the gaseous mixture, or, when filled by
mass, the proportion of the mass indicated as a percentage of the total mass of the mixture;
(c) In the case of mixtures of liquefied gases and dissolved gases, the proportion of the mass
indicated as a percentage of the total mass of the mixture.

Pressures of all kinds relating to receptacles (such as test pressure, internal pressure, safety valve
opening pressure) are always indicated in gauge pressure (pressure in excess of atmospheric pressure);
however, the vapour pressure of substances is always expressed in absolute pressure.

Where ADR specifies a degree of filling for receptacles, this is always related to a reference
temperature of the substances of 15 °C, unless some other temperature is indicated.

1.3

TRAINING OF PERSONS INVOLVED IN THE CARRIAGE OF DANGEROUS GOODS

Scope and applicability

Persons employed by the participants referred to in Chapter 1.4, whose duties concern the carriage of
dangerous goods, shall be trained in the requirements governing the carriage of such goods
appropriate to their responsibilities and duties. Employees shall be trained in accordance with 1.3.2
before assuming responsibilities and shall only perform functions, for which required training has not
yet been provided, under the direct supervision of a trained person. Training requirements specific to
security of dangerous goods in Chapter 1.10 shall also be addressed.
NOTE 1: With regard to the training for the safety adviser, see 1.8.3 instead of this section.
NOTE 2: With regard to the training of the vehicle crew, see Chapter 8.2 instead of this section.
NOTE 3: For training with regard to Class 7, see also 1.7.2.5.

Nature of the training

The training shall take the following form, appropriate to the responsibility and duties of the
individual concerned.

General awareness training

Personnel shall be familiar with the general requirements of the provisions for the carriage of
dangerous goods.

Function-specific training

Personnel shall be trained, commensurate directly with their duties and responsibilities in the
requirements of the regulations concerning the carriage of dangerous goods.
Where the carriage of dangerous goods involves a multimodal transport operation, the personnel shall
be aware of the requirements concerning other transport modes.

Safety training

Commensurate with the degree of risk of injury or exposure arising from an incident involving the
carriage of dangerous goods, including loading and unloading, personnel shall be trained in the
hazards and dangers presented by dangerous goods.
The training provided shall aim to make personnel aware of the safe handling and emergency response
procedures.

The training shall be periodically supplemented with refresher training to take account of changes in
regulations.

Documentation

Records of training received according to this Chapter shall be kept by the employer and made

available to the employee or competent authority, upon request. Records shall be kept by the employer
for a period of time established by the competent authority. Records of training shall be verified upon
commencing a new employment.

1.4

SAFETY OBLIGATIONS OF THE PARTICIPANTS

General safety measures

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