Class 1 Explosive substances and articles

Criteria

The heading of Class 1 covers:
(a) Explosive substances: solid or liquid substances (or mixtures of substances) capable by
chemical reaction of producing gases at such a temperature and pressure and at such a speed as
to cause damage to the surroundings.
Pyrotechnic substances: substances or mixtures of substances designed to produce an effect by
heat, light, sound, gas or smoke or a combination of these as the result of non-detonating
self-sustaining exothermic chemical reactions;
NOTE 1: Substances which are not themselves explosive but which may form an explosive
mixture of gas, vapour or dust are not substances of Class 1.
NOTE 2: Also excluded from Class 1 are: water- or alcohol-wetted explosives of which the
water or alcohol content exceeds the limits specified and those containing plasticizers - these
explosives are assigned to Class 3 or Class 4.1 - and those explosives which, on the basis of
their predominant hazard, are assigned to Class 5.2.
(b) Explosive articles: articles containing one or more explosive or pyrotechnic substances;
NOTE: Devices containing explosive or pyrotechnic substances in such small quantity or of
such a character that their inadvertent or accidental ignition or initiation during carriage
would not cause any manifestation external to the device by projection, fire, smoke, heat or
loud noise are not subject to the requirements of Class 1.
(c) Substances and articles not mentioned above which are manufactured with a view to producing
a practical effect by explosion or a pyrotechnic effect.
For the purposes of Class 1, the following definition applies:
Phlegmatized means that a substance (or "phlegmatizer") has been added to an explosive to enhance
its safety in handling and carriage. The phlegmatizer renders the explosive insensitive, or less
sensitive, to the following actions: heat, shock, impact, percussion or friction. Typical phlegmatizing
agents include, but are not limited to: wax, paper, water, polymers (such as chlorofluoropolymers),
alcohol and oils (such as petroleum jelly and paraffin).

Any substance or article having or suspected of having explosive properties shall be considered for
assignment to Class 1 in accordance with the tests, procedures and criteria prescribed in Part I,
Manual of Tests and Criteria.
A substance or article assigned to Class 1 can only be accepted for carriage when it has been assigned
to a name or n.o.s. entry listed in Table A of Chapter 3.2 and meets the criteria of the Manual of Tests
and Criteria.

The substances and articles of Class 1 shall be assigned to a UN Number and a name or n.o.s. entry
listed in Table A of Chapter 3.2. Interpretation of the names of substances and articles in Table A of
Chapter 3.2 shall be based upon the glossary in 2.2.1.4.
Samples of new or existing explosive substances or articles carried for purposes including: testing,
classification, research and development quality control, or as a commercial sample, other than
initiating explosive, may be assigned to UN No. 0190 SAMPLES, EXPLOSIVE.
The assignment of explosive substances and articles not mentioned by name as such in Table A of
Chapter 3.2 to an n.o.s entry of Class 1 or UN No. 0190 SAMPLES, EXPLOSIVE as well as the
assignment of certain substances the carriage of which is subject to a specific authorization by the
competent authority according to the special provisions referred to in Column (6) of Table A of
Chapter 3.2 shall be made by the competent authority of the country of origin. This competent
authority shall also approve in writing the conditions of carriage of these substances and articles. If
the country of origin is not a Contracting Party to ADR, the classification and the conditions of
carriage shall be recognized by the competent authority of the first country Contracting Party to ADR
reached by the consignment.

 

Substances and articles of Class 1 shall have been assigned to a division in accordance with 2.2.1.1.5
and to a compatibility group in accordance with 2.2.1.1.6. The division shall be based on the results of
the tests described in 2.3.0 and 2.3.1 applying the definitions in 2.2.1.1.5. The compatibility group
shall be determined in accordance with the definitions in 2.2.1.1.6. The classification code shall
consist of the division number and the compatibility group letter.

Definition of divisions

 
Division 1.1 Substances and articles which have a mass explosion hazard (a mass explosion is
an explosion which affects almost the entire load virtually instantaneously).
Division 1.2 Substances and articles which have a projection hazard but not a mass explosion
hazard.
Division 1.3 Substances and articles which have a fire hazard and either a minor blast hazard
or a minor projection hazard or both, but not a mass explosion hazard:
(a) combustion of which gives rise to considerable radiant heat; or
(b) which burn one after another, producing minor blast or projection effects
or both.
Division 1.4 Substances and articles which present only a slight risk of explosion in the event
of ignition or initiation during carriage. The effects are largely confined to the
package and no projection of fragments of appreciable size or range is to be
expected. An external fire shall not cause virtually instantaneous explosion of
almost the entire contents of the package.
Division 1.5 Very insensitive substances having a mass explosion hazard which are so
insensitive that there is very little probability of initiation or of transition from
burning to detonation under normal conditions of carriage. As a minimum
requirement they must not explode in the external fire test.
Division 1.6 Extremely insensitive articles which do not have a mass explosion hazard. The
articles predominantly contain extremely insensitive substances and demonstrate
a negligible probability of accidental initiation or propagation.
NOTE: The risk from articles of Division 1.6 is limited to the explosion of a
single article.

Definition of compatibility groups of substances and articles

A Primary explosive substance.
B Article containing a primary explosive substance and not having two or more effective
protective features. Some articles, such as detonators for blasting, detonator assemblies for
blasting and primers, cap-type, are included, even though they do not contain primary
explosives.
C Propellant explosive substance or other deflagrating explosive substance or article containing
such explosive substance.
D Secondary detonating explosive substance or black powder or article containing a secondary
detonating explosive substance, in each case without means of initiation and without a
propelling charge, or article containing a primary explosive substance and having two or more
effective protective features.
E Article containing a secondary detonating explosive substance, without means of initiation,
with a propelling charge (other than one containing a flammable liquid or gel or hypergolic
liquids).
F Article containing a secondary detonating explosive substance with its own means of initiation,
with a propelling charge (other than one containing a flammable liquid or gel or hypergolic
liquids) or without a propelling charge.
G Pyrotechnic substance, or article containing a pyrotechnic substance, or article containing both
an explosive substance and an illuminating, incendiary, tear- or smoke-producing substance
(other than a water-activated article or one which contains white phosphorus, phosphides, a
pyrophoric substance, a flammable liquid or gel or hypergolic liquids).
H Article containing both an explosive substance and white phosphorus.
J Article containing both an explosive substance and a flammable liquid or gel.
K Article containing both an explosive substance and a toxic chemical agent.
L Explosive substance or article containing an explosive substance and presenting a special risk
(e.g. due to water activation or the presence of hypergolic liquids, phosphides or a pyrophoric
substance) necessitating isolation of each type.
N Articles predominantly containing extremely insensitive substances.
S Substance or article so packed or designed that any hazardous effects arising from accidental
functioning are confined within the package unless the package has been degraded by fire, in
which case all blast or projection effects are limited to the extent that they do not significantly
hinder or prevent fire-fighting or other emergency response efforts in the immediate vicinity of
the package.
NOTE 1: Each substance or article, packed in a specified packaging, may be assigned to one
compatibility group only. Since the criterion of compatibility group S is empirical, assignment to this
group is necessarily linked to the tests for assignment of a classification code.
NOTE 2: Articles of compatibility groups D and E may be fitted or packed together with their own
means of initiation provided that such means have at least two effective protective features designed
to prevent an explosion in the event of accidental functioning of the means of initiation. Such articles
and packages shall be assigned to compatibility groups D or E.
NOTE 3: Articles of compatibility groups D and E may be packed together with their own means of
initiation, which do not have two effective protective features (i.e. means of initiation assigned to
compatibility group B), provided that they comply with mixed packing provision MP21 of Section
4.1.10. Such packages shall be assigned to compatibility groups D or E.
NOTE 4: Articles may be fitted or packed together with their own means of ignition provided that the
means of ignition cannot function during normal conditions of carriage.
NOTE 5: Articles of compatibility groups C, D and E may be packed together. Such packages shall
be assigned to compatibility group E.

 

Assignment of fireworks to divisions

Fireworks shall normally be assigned to divisions 1.1, 1.2, 1.3, and 1.4 on the basis of test data
derived from Test Series 6 of the Manual of Tests and Criteria.
However:
(a) waterfalls giving a positive result when tested in the HSL Flash composition test in Appendix 7
of the Manual of Tests and Criteria shall be classified as 1.1G regardless of the results of Test
Series 6;
(b) since the range of such articles is very extensive and the availability of test facilities may be
limited, assignment to divisions may also be made in accordance with the procedure in
2.2.1.1.7.2.

Assignment of fireworks to UN Nos. 0333, 0334, 0335 and 0336 may be made on the basis of
analogy, without the need for Test Series 6 testing, in accordance with the default fireworks
classification table in 2.2.1.1.7.5. Such assignment shall be made with the agreement of the competent
authority. Items not specified in the table shall be classified on the basis of test data derived from Test
Series 6.
NOTE 1: The addition of other types of fireworks to column 1 of the table in 2.2.1.1.7.5 shall only be
made on the basis of full test data submitted to the UN Sub-Committee of Experts on the Transport of
Dangerous Goods for consideration.
NOTE 2: Test data derived by competent authorities which validates, or contradicts the assignment
of fireworks specified in column 4 of the table in 2.2.1.1.7.5 to divisions in column 5 should be
submitted to the UN Sub-Committee of Experts on the Transport of Dangerous Goods for information.

Where fireworks of more than one division are packed in the same package, they shall be classified on
the basis of the most dangerous division unless test data derived from Test Series 6 indicate otherwise.

The classification shown in the table in 2.2.1.1.7.5 applies only for articles packed in fibreboard boxes
(4G).

Default fireworks classification table1
NOTE 1: References to percentages in the table, unless otherwise stated, are to the mass of all
pyrotechnic substances (e.g. rocket motors, lifting charge, bursting charge and effect charge).
NOTE 2: "Flash composition" in this table refers to pyrotechnic substances in powder form or as
pyrotechnic units as presented in the firework that are used to produce an aural effect or used as a
bursting charge, or propellant charge unless the time taken for the pressure rise is demonstrated to be
more than 6 ms for 0.5 g of pyrotechnic substance in the HSL Flash Composition Test in Appendix 7
of the Manual of Tests and Criteria.
NOTE 3: Dimensions in mm refer to:
- for spherical and peanut shells the diameter of the sphere of the shell;
- for cylinder shells the length of the shell;
- for a shell in mortar, Roman candle, shot tube firework or mine the inside diameter of the tube
comprising or containing the firework;
- for a bag mine or cylinder mine, the inside diameter of the mortar intended to contain the
mine.
 

Type

Includes: / Synonym:

Definition

Specification

Classification

Shell, spherical or cylindrical

Spherical display shell: aerial shell, colour shell, dye shell, multi-break shell, multi-effect shell, nautical shell, parachute shell, smoke shell, star shell; report shell: maroon, salute, sound shell, thunderclap, aerial shell kit

Device with or without propellant charge, with delay fuse and bursting charge, pyrotechnic unit(s) or loose pyrotechnic substance and designed to be projected from a mortar

All report shells

1.1G

Colour shell: 180 mm

1.1G

Colour shell: < 180 mm with

> 25% flash composition, as loose powder and/or report effects

1.1G

Colour shell: < 180 mm with

25% flash composition, as loose powder and/or report effects

1.3G

Colour shell: 50 mm, or 60 g pyrotechnic substance, with 2% flash composition as loose powder and/or report effects

1.4G

Peanut shell

Device with two or more spherical aerial shells in a common wrapper propelled by the same propellant charge with separate external delay fuses

The most hazardous spherical aerial shell determines the classification

Preloaded mortar, shell in mortar

Assembly comprising a spherical or cylindrical shell inside a mortar from which the shell is designed to be projected

All report shells

1.1G

Colour shell: 180 mm

1.1G

Colour shell: > 25% flash composition as loose powder and/or report effects

1.1G

Colour shell: > 50 mm and

< 180 mm

1.2G

Colour shell: 50 mm, or 60 g pyrotechnic substance, with

25% flash composition as loose powder and/or report effects

           1.3G

 

Type

Includes: / Synonym:

Definition

Specification

Classification

Shell, spherical or cylindrical

(cont'd)

Shell of shells (spherical)

(Reference to percentages for shell of shells are to the gross mass of the fireworks article)

Device without propellant charge, with delay fuse and bursting charge, containing report shells and inert materials and designed to be projected from a mortar

> 120 mm

1.1G

Device without propellant charge, with delay fuse and bursting charge, containing report shells ≤ 25g flash composition per report unit, with ≤ 33% flash composition and  60% inert materials and designed to be projected from a mortar

≤ 120 mm

1.3G

Device without propellant charge, with delay fuse and bursting charge, containing colour shells and/or pyrotechnic units and designed to be projected from a mortar

> 300 mm

1.1G

Device without propellant charge, with delay fuse and bursting charge, containing colour shells

≤ 70mm and/or pyrotechnic units, with ≤ 25% flash composition and ≤ 60% pyrotechnic substance and designed to be projected from a mortar

> 200 mm and ≤ 300 mm

1.3G

Device with propellant charge, with delay fuse and bursting charge, containing colour shells ≤ 70 mm and/or pyrotechnic units, with ≤ 25% flash composition and ≤ 60% pyrotechnic substance and designed to be projected from a mortar

≤ 200 mm

1.3G

Battery/ combination

Barrage, bombardos, cakes, finale box, flowerbed, hybrid, multiple tubes, shell cakes, banger batteries, flash banger batteries

Assembly including several elements either containing the same type or several types each corresponding to one of the types of fireworks listed in this table, with one or two points of ignition

The most hazardous firework type determines the classification

Type

Includes: / Synonym:

Definition

Specification

Classification

Roman candle

Exhibition candle, candle, bombettes

Tube containing a series of pyrotechnic units consisting of alternate pyrotechnic substance, propellant charge, and transmitting fuse

 50 mm inner diameter, containing flash composition, or

< 50 mm with > 25% flash composition

1.1G

 50 mm inner diameter, containing no flash composition

1.2G

< 50 mm inner diameter and ≤ 25% flash composition

1.3G

 30 mm inner diameter, each pyrotechnic unit ≤ 25 g and ≤ 5% flash composition

1.4G

Shot tube

Single shot Roman candle, small preloaded mortar

Tube containing a pyrotechnic unit consisting of pyrotechnic substance, propellant charge with or without transmitting fuse

≤ 30 mm inner diameter and pyrotechnic unit > 25 g, or > 5% and ≤ 25% flash composition

1.3G

 30 mm inner diameter, pyrotechnic unit ≤ 25 g and ≤ 5% flash composition

1.4G

Rocket

Avalanche rocket, signal rocket, whistling rocket, bottle rocket, sky rocket, missile type rocket, table rocket

Tube containing pyrotechnic substance and/or pyrotechnic units, equipped with stick(s) or other means for stabilization of flight, and designed to be propelled into the air

Flash composition effects only

1.1G

Flash composition > 25% of the pyrotechnic substance

1.1G

> 20 g pyrotechnic substance and flash composition ≤ 25%

1.3G

 20 g pyrotechnic substance, black powder bursting charge and

≤ 0.13 g flash composition per report and ≤ 1 g in total

1.4G

 

Type

Includes: / Synonym:

Definition

Specification

Classification

Mine

Pot-a-feu, ground mine, bag mine, cylinder mine

Tube containing propellant charge and pyrotechnic units and designed to be placed on the ground or to be fixed in the ground. The principal effect is ejection of all the pyrotechnic units in a single burst producing a widely dispersed visual and/or aural effect in the air or:

Cloth or paper bag or cloth or paper cylinder containing propellant charge and pyrotechnic units, designed to be placed in a mortar and to function as a mine

> 25% flash composition, as loose powder and/ or report effects

1.1G

 180 mm and  25% flash composition, as loose powder and/ or report effects

1.1G

< 180 mm and  25% flash composition, as loose powder and/ or report effects

1.3G

 150 g pyrotechnic substance, containing  5% flash composition as loose powder and/ or report effects. Each pyrotechnic unit  25 g, each report effect

< 2g; each whistle, if any,  3 g

1.4G

Fountain

Volcanos, gerbs, lances, Bengal fire, flitter sparkle, cylindrical fountains, cone fountains, illuminating torch

Non-metallic case containing pressed or consolidated pyrotechnic substance producing sparks and flame

NOTE: Fountains intended to produce a vertical cascade or curtain of sparks are considered to be waterfalls (see row below).

 1 kg pyrotechnic substance

1.3G

< 1 kg pyrotechnic substance

1.4G

 

Type

Includes: / Synonym:

Definition

Specification

Classification

Waterfall

Cascades, showers

Pyrotechnic fountain intended to produce a vertical cascade or curtain of sparks

Containing a pyrotechnic substance which gives a positive result when tested in the HSL Flash composition test in Appendix 7 of the Manual of Tests and Criteria regardless of the results of Test Series 6 (see 2.2.1.1.7.1 (a))

1.1G

Containing a pyrotechnic substance which gives a negative result when tested in the HSL Flash composition test in Appendix 7 of the Manual of Tests and Criteria

1.3G

Sparkler

Handheld sparklers, non-handheld sparklers, wire sparklers

Rigid wire partially coated (along one end) with slow burning pyrotechnic substance with or without an ignition tip

Perchlorate based sparklers: > 5 g per item or > 10 items per pack

1.3G

Perchlorate based sparklers: ≤ 5 g per item and ≤ 10 items per pack;

Nitrate based sparklers: ≤ 30 g per item

1.4G

Bengal stick

Dipped stick

Non-metallic stick partially coated (along one end) with slow-burning pyrotechnic substance and designed to be held in the hand

Perchlorate based items: > 5 g per item or > 10 items per pack

1.3 G

Perchlorate based items: ≤ 5 g per item and ≤ 10 items per pack; nitrate based items: ≤ 30 g per item

1.4G

 

 

Type

Includes: / Synonym:

Definition

Specification

Classification

Low hazard fireworks and novelties

Table bombs, throwdowns, crackling granules, smokes, fog, snakes, glow worm, serpents, snaps, party poppers

Device designed to produce very limited visible and/ or audible effect which contains small amounts of pyrotechnic and/or explosive composition.

Throwdowns and snaps may contain up to 1.6 mg of silver fulminate; snaps and party poppers may contain up to 16 mg of potassium chlorate/red phosphorous mixture; other articles may contain up to 5 g of pyrotechnic substance, but no flash composition

1.4G

Spinner

Aerial spinner, helicopter, chaser, ground spinner

Non-metallic tube or tubes containing gas- or spark-producing pyrotechnic substance, with or without noise producing composition, with or without aerofoils attached

Pyrotechnic substance per item

> 20 g, containing 3% flash composition as report effects, or whistle composition 5 g

1.3G

Pyrotechnic substance per item

20 g, containing 3% flash composition as report effects, or whistle composition 5 g

1.4G

Wheels

Catherine wheels, Saxon

Assembly including drivers containing pyrotechnic substance and provided with a means of attaching it to a support so that it can rotate

1 kg total pyrotechnic substance, no report effect, each whistle (if any) 25 g and ≤ 50 g whistle composition per wheel

1.3G

< 1 kg total pyrotechnic substance, no report effect, each whistle (if any) 5 g and ≤ 10 g whistle composition per wheel

1.4G

Exclusion from Class 1

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