Low specific activity (LSA) material

(Reserved)

LSA material shall be in one of three groups:
(a) LSA-I
(i) uranium and thorium ores and concentrates of such ores, and other ores containing
naturally occurring radionuclides;
(ii) natural uranium, depleted uranium, natural thorium or their compounds or mixtures, that
are unirradiated and in solid or liquid form;
(iii) radioactive material for which the A2 value is unlimited. Fissile material may be
included only if excepted under 2.2.7.2.3.5;
(iv) other radioactive material in which the activity is distributed throughout and the
estimated average specific activity does not exceed 30 times the values for activity
concentration specified in 2.2.7.2.2.1 to 2.2.7.2.2.6. Fissile material may be included
only if excepted under 2.2.7.2.3.5;
(b) LSA-II
(i) water with tritium concentration up to 0.8 TBq/l;
(ii) other material in which the activity is distributed throughout and the estimated average
specific activity does not exceed 10-4 A2/g for solids and gases, and 10-5 A2/g for
liquids;
(c) LSA-III - Solids (e.g. consolidated wastes, activated materials), excluding powders, that meet
the requirements of 2.2.7.2.3.1.3, in which:
(i) the radioactive material is distributed throughout a solid or a collection of solid objects,
or is essentially uniformly distributed in a solid compact binding agent (such as
concrete, bitumen and ceramic);
(ii) the radioactive material is relatively insoluble, or it is intrinsically contained in a
relatively insoluble matrix, so that, even under loss of packaging, the loss of radioactive
material per package by leaching when placed in water for seven days would not exceed
0.1 A2; and
(iii) the estimated average specific activity of the solid, excluding any shielding material,
does not exceed 2 × 10-3 A2/g.

LSA-III material shall be a solid of such a nature that if the entire contents of a package were
subjected to the test specified in 2.2.7.2.3.1.4 the activity in the water would not exceed 0.1 A2.

LSA-III material shall be tested as follows:
A solid material sample representing the entire contents of the package shall be immersed for 7 days
in water at ambient temperature. The volume of water to be used in the test shall be sufficient to
ensure that at the end of the 7 day test period the free volume of the unabsorbed and unreacted water
remaining shall be at least 10% of the volume of the solid test sample itself. The water shall have an
initial pH of 6-8 and a maximum conductivity of 1 mS/m at 20 °C. The total activity of the free
volume of water shall be measured following the 7 day immersion of the test sample.

Demonstration of compliance with the performance standards in 2.2.7.2.3.1.4 shall be in accordance
with 6.4.12.1 and 6.4.12.2.

Surface contaminated object (SCO)
SCO is classified in one of two groups:
(a) SCO-I: A solid object on which:
(i) the non-fixed contamination on the accessible surface averaged over 300 cm2 (or the
area of the surface if less than 300 cm2) does not exceed 4 Bq/cm2 for beta and gamma
emitters and low toxicity alpha emitters, or 0.4 Bq/cm2 for all other alpha emitters; and
(ii) the fixed contamination on the accessible surface averaged over 300 cm2 (or the area of
the surface if less than 300 cm2) does not exceed 4 × 104 Bq/cm2 for beta and gamma
emitters and low toxicity alpha emitters, or 4 × 103 Bq/cm2 for all other alpha emitters;
and
(iii) the non-fixed contamination plus the fixed contamination on the inaccessible surface
averaged over 300 cm2 (or the area of the surface if less than 300 cm2) does not exceed
4 × 104 Bq/cm2 for beta and gamma emitters and low toxicity alpha emitters, or
4 × 103 Bq/cm2 for all other alpha emitters;
(b) SCO-II: A solid object on which either the fixed or non-fixed contamination on the surface
exceeds the applicable limits specified for SCO-I in (a) above and on which:
(i) the non-fixed contamination on the accessible surface averaged over 300 cm2 (or the
area of the surface if less than 300 cm2) does not exceed 400 Bq/cm2 for beta and
gamma emitters and low toxicity alpha emitters, or 40 Bq/cm2 for all other alpha
emitters; and
(ii) the fixed contamination on the accessible surface, averaged over 300 cm2 (or the area of
the surface if less than 300 cm2) does not exceed 8 × 105 Bq/cm2 for beta and gamma
emitters and low toxicity alpha emitters, or 8 × 104 Bq/cm2 for all other alpha emitters;
and
(iii) the non-fixed contamination plus the fixed contamination on the inaccessible surface
averaged over 300 cm2 (or the area of the surface if less than 300 cm2) does not exceed
8 × 105 Bq/cm2 for beta and gamma emitters and low toxicity alpha emitters, or
8 × 104 Bq/cm2 for all other alpha emitters.

 

Special form radioactive material

Special form radioactive material shall have at least one dimension not less than 5 mm. When a sealed
capsule constitutes part of the special form radioactive material, the capsule shall be so manufactured that it
can be opened only by destroying it. The design for special form radioactive material requires unilateral
approval.

Special form radioactive material shall be of such a nature or shall be so designed that if it is subjected
to the tests specified in 2.2.7.2.3.3.4 to 2.2.7.2.3.3.8, it shall meet the following requirements:
(a) It would not break or shatter under the impact, percussion and bending tests
2.2.7.2.3.3.5 (a), (b), (c) and 2.2.7.2.3.3.6 (a) as applicable;
(b) It would not melt or disperse in the applicable heat test 2.2.7.2.3.3.5 (d) or 2.2.7.2.3.3.6 (b) as
applicable; and
(c) The activity in the water from the leaching tests specified in 2.2.7.2.3.3.7 and 2.2.7.2.3.3.8
would not exceed 2 kBq; or alternatively for sealed sources, the leakage rate for the volumetric
leakage assessment test specified in ISO 9978:1992 "Radiation Protection - Sealed Radioactive
Sources - Leakage Test Methods", would not exceed the applicable acceptance threshold
acceptable to the competent authority.

Demonstration of compliance with the performance standards in 2.2.7.2.3.3.2 shall be in accordance
with 6.4.12.1 and 6.4.12.2.

Specimens that comprise or simulate special form radioactive material shall be subjected to the impact
test, the percussion test, the bending test, and the heat test specified in 2.2.7.2.3.3.5 or alternative tests
as authorized in 2.2.7.2.3.3.6. A different specimen may be used for each of the tests. Following each
test, a leaching assessment or volumetric leakage test shall be performed on the specimen by a method
no less sensitive than the methods given in 2.2.7.2.3.3.7 for indispersible solid material or
2.2.7.2.3.3.8 for encapsulated material.

The relevant test methods are:
(a) Impact test: The specimen shall drop onto the target from a height of 9 m. The target shall be
as defined in 6.4.14;
(b) Percussion test: The specimen shall be placed on a sheet of lead which is supported by a
smooth solid surface and struck by the flat face of a mild steel bar so as to cause an impact
equivalent to that resulting from a free drop of 1.4 kg through 1 m. The lower part of the bar
shall be 25 mm in diameter with the edges rounded off to a radius of (3.0 ± 0.3) mm. The lead,
of hardness number 3.5 to 4.5 on the Vickers scale and not more than 25 mm thick, shall cover
an area greater than that covered by the specimen. A fresh surface of lead shall be used for
each impact. The bar shall strike the specimen so as to cause maximum damage;
(c) Bending test: The test shall apply only to long, slender sources with both a minimum length of
10 cm and a length to minimum width ratio of not less than 10. The specimen shall be rigidly
clamped in a horizontal position so that one half of its length protrudes from the face of the
clamp. The orientation of the specimen shall be such that the specimen will suffer maximum
damage when its free end is struck by the flat face of a steel bar. The bar shall strike the
specimen so as to cause an impact equivalent to that resulting from a free vertical drop of 1.4
kg through 1 m. The lower part of the bar shall be 25 mm in diameter with the edges rounded
off to a radius of (3.0 ± 0.3) mm;
(d) Heat test: The specimen shall be heated in air to a temperature of 800 °C and held at that
temperature for a period of 10 minutes and shall then be allowed to cool.

Specimens that comprise or simulate radioactive material enclosed in a sealed capsule may be
excepted from:
(a) The tests prescribed in 2.2.7.2.3.3.5 (a) and (b) provided that the specimens are alternatively
subjected to the impact test prescribed in ISO 2919:2012: "Radiation Protection - Sealed
Radioactive Sources - General requirements and classification":
(i) The Class 4 impact test if the mass of the special form radioactive material is equal to or
less than 200 g;
(ii) The Class 5 impact test if the mass of the special form radioactive material is equal to or
more than 200 g but is less than 500 g;
(b) The test prescribed in 2.2.7.2.3.3.5 (d) provided they are alternatively subjected to the Class 6
temperature test specified in ISO 2919:2012 "Radiation protection - Sealed radioactive
sources - General requirements and classification".

For specimens which comprise or simulate indispersible solid material, a leaching assessment shall be
performed as follows:
(a) The specimen shall be immersed for 7 days in water at ambient temperature. The volume of
water to be used in the test shall be sufficient to ensure that at the end of the 7 day test period
the free volume of the unabsorbed and unreacted water remaining shall be at least 10% of the
volume of the solid test sample itself. The water shall have an initial pH of 6-8 and a maximum
conductivity of 1 mS/m at 20 °C;
(b) The water with specimen shall then be heated to a temperature of (50 ± 5) °C and maintained at
this temperature for 4 hours;
(c) The activity of the water shall then be determined;
(d) The specimen shall then be kept for at least 7 days in still air at not less than 30 °C and relative
humidity not less than 90%;
(e) The specimen shall then be immersed in water of the same specification as in (a) above and the
water with the specimen heated to (50 ± 5) °C and maintained at this temperature for 4 hours;
(f) The activity of the water shall then be determined.
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