Lithium batteries

Lithium batteries shall meet the following requirements, except when otherwise provided for in ADR
(e.g. for prototype batteries and small production runs under special provision 310 or damaged
batteries under special provision 376).
 
Cells and batteries, cells and batteries contained in equipment, or cells and batteries packed with
equipment, containing lithium in any form shall be assigned to UN Nos. 3090, 3091, 3480 or 3481 as
appropriate. They may be carried under these entries if they meet the following provisions:
(a) Each cell or battery is of the type proved to meet the requirements of each test of the
Manual of Tests and Criteria, Part III, sub-section 38.3;
NOTE: Batteries shall be of a type proved to meet the testing requirements of the
Manual of Tests and Criteria, part III, sub-section 38.3, irrespective of whether the cells of
which they are composed are of a tested type.
(b) Each cell and battery incorporates a safety venting device or is designed to preclude a
violent rupture under normal conditions of carriage;
(c) Each cell and battery is equipped with an effective means of preventing external short
circuits;
(d) Each battery containing cells or series of cells connected in parallel is equipped with
effective means as necessary to prevent dangerous reverse current flow (e.g., diodes, fuses,
etc.);
(e) Cells and batteries shall be manufactured under a quality management programme that
includes:
(i) A description of the organizational structure and responsibilities of personnel with
regard to design and product quality;
(ii) The relevant inspection and test, quality control, quality assurance, and process
operation instructions that will be used;
(iii) Process controls that should include relevant activities to prevent and detect internal
short circuit failure during manufacture of cells;
(iv) Quality records, such as inspection reports, test data, calibration data and certificates.
Test data shall be kept and made available to the competent authority upon request;
(v) Management reviews to ensure the effective operation of the quality management
programme;
(vi) A process for control of documents and their revision;
(vii) A means for control of cells or batteries that are not conforming to the type tested as
mentioned in (a) above;
(viii) Training programmes and qualification procedures for relevant personnel; and
(ix) Procedures to ensure that there is no damage to the final product.
NOTE: In house quality management programmes may be accepted. Third party
certification is not required, but the procedures listed in (i) to (ix) above shall be properly
recorded and traceable. A copy of the quality management programme shall be made
available to the competent authority upon request.
Lithium batteries are not subject to the provisions of ADR if they meet the requirements of special
provision 188 of Chapter 3.3.

 

Life-saving appliances

Life-saving appliances include life-saving appliances and motor vehicle components which meet the
descriptions of special provisions 235 or 296 of Chapter 3.3.

Environmentally hazardous substances

(Deleted)

Pollutants to the aquatic environment

Environmentally hazardous substances (aquatic environment)

General definitions

Environmentally hazardous substances include, inter alia, liquid or solid substances pollutant to the
aquatic environment and solutions and mixtures of such substances (such as preparations and wastes).
For the purposes of 2.2.9.1.10, "substance" means chemical elements and their compounds in the
natural state or obtained by any production process, including any additive necessary to preserve the
stability of the product and any impurities deriving from the process used, but excluding any solvent
which may be separated without affecting the stability of the substance or changing its composition.

The aquatic environment may be considered in terms of the aquatic organisms that live in the water,
and the aquatic ecosystem of which they are part9. The basis, therefore, of the identification of hazard
is the aquatic toxicity of the substance or mixture, although this may be modified by further
information on the degradation and bioaccumulation behaviour.

While the following classification procedure is intended to apply to all substances and mixtures, it is
recognised that in some cases, e.g. metals or poorly soluble inorganic compounds, special guidance
will be necessary10.
 
9 This does not address aquatic pollutants for which there may be a need to consider effects beyond the aquatic
environment such as the impacts on human health etc.
10 This can be found in Annex 10 of the GHS.

 

The following definitions apply for acronyms or terms used in this section:
- BCF: Bioconcentration Factor;
- BOD: Biochemical Oxygen Demand;
- COD: Chemical Oxygen Demand;
- GLP: Good Laboratory Practices;
- ECx: the concentration associated with x% response;
- EC50: the effective concentration of substance that causes 50% of the maximum response;
- ErC50: EC50 in terms of reduction of growth;
- Kow: octanol/water partition coefficient;
- LC50 (50% lethal concentration): the concentration of a substance in water which causes the
death of 50% (one half) in a group of test animals;
- L(E)C50: LC50 or EC50;
- NOEC (No Observed Effect Concentration): the test concentration immediately below the
lowest tested concentration with statistically significant adverse effect. The NOEC has no
statistically significant adverse effect compared to the control;
- OECD Test Guidelines: Test guidelines published by the Organization for Economic
Cooperation and Development (OECD).

Definitions and data requirements

The basic elements for classification of environmentally hazardous substances (aquatic environment)
are:
(a) Acute aquatic toxicity;
(b) Chronic aquatic toxicity;
(c) Potential for or actual bioaccumulation; and
(d) Degradation (biotic or abiotic) for organic chemicals.

While data from internationally harmonised test methods are preferred, in practice, data from national
methods may also be used where they are considered as equivalent. In general, it has been agreed that
freshwater and marine species toxicity data can be considered as equivalent data and are preferably to
be derived using OECD Test Guidelines or equivalent according to the principles of Good Laboratory
Practices (GLP). Where such data are not available, classification shall be based on the best available
data.

Acute aquatic toxicity means the intrinsic property of a substance to be injurious to an organism in a
short-term aquatic exposure to that substance.
Acute (short-term) hazard, for classification purposes, means the hazard of a chemical caused by its
acute toxicity to an organism during short-term aquatic exposure to that chemical.
Acute aquatic toxicity shall normally be determined using a fish 96 hour LC50 (OECD Test Guideline
203 or equivalent), a crustacea species 48 hour EC50 (OECD Test Guideline 202 or equivalent) and/or
an algal species 72 or 96 hour EC50 (OECD Test Guideline 201 or equivalent). These species are
considered as surrogate for all aquatic organisms and data on other species such as Lemna may also be
considered if the test methodology is suitable.

Chronic aquatic toxicity means the intrinsic property of a substance to cause adverse effects to aquatic
organisms during aquatic exposures which are determined in relation to the life-cycle of the organism.
Long-term hazard, for classification purposes, means the hazard of a chemical caused by its chronic
toxicity following long-term exposure in the aquatic environment.
Chronic toxicity data are less available than acute data and the range of testing procedures less
standardised. Data generated according to the OECD Test Guidelines 210 (Fish Early Life Stage) or
211 (Daphnia Reproduction) and 201 (Algal Growth Inhibition) may be accepted. Other validated and
internationally accepted tests may also be used. The NOECs or other equivalent ECx shall be used.

Bioaccumulation means net result of uptake, transformation and elimination of a substance in an
organism due to all routes of exposure (i.e. air, water, sediment/soil and food).
The potential for bioaccumulation shall normally be determined by using the octanol/water partition
coefficient, usually reported as a log Kow determined according to OECD Test Guideline 107 or 117.
While this represents a potential to bioaccumulate, an experimentally determined Bioconcentration
Factor (BCF) provides a better measure and shall be used in preference when available. A BCF shall
be determined according to OECD Test Guideline 107, 117 or 123.
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