Test requirements for packagings
Performance and frequency of tests
The design type of each packaging shall be tested as provided in 6.1.5 in accordance with procedures
established by the competent authority allowing the allocation of the mark and shall be approved by
this competent authority.
Each packaging design type shall successfully pass the tests prescribed in this Chapter before being
used. A packaging design type is defined by the design, size, material and thickness, manner of
construction and packing, but may include various surface treatments. It also includes packagings
which differ from the design type only in their lesser design height.
Tests shall be repeated on production samples at intervals established by the competent authority. For
such tests on paper or fibreboard packagings, preparation at ambient conditions is considered
equivalent to the requirements of 220.127.116.11.3.
Tests shall also be repeated after each modification which alters the design, material or manner of
construction of a packaging.
The competent authority may permit the selective testing of packagings that differ only in minor
respects from a tested type, e.g. smaller sizes of inner packagings or inner packagings of lower net
mass; and packagings such as drums, bags and boxes which are produced with small reductions in
NOTE: For the conditions for using different inner packagings in an outer packaging and permissible
variations in inner packagings, see 18.104.22.168.1. These conditions do not limit the use of inner
packagings when applying 22.214.171.124.7.
Articles or inner packagings of any type for solids or liquids may be assembled and carried without
testing in an outer packaging under the following conditions:
(a) The outer packaging shall have been successfully tested in accordance with 126.96.36.199 with fragile
(e.g. glass) inner packagings containing liquids using the packing group I drop height;
(b) The total combined gross mass of inner packagings shall not exceed one half the gross mass of
inner packagings used for the drop test in (a) above;
(c) The thickness of cushioning material between inner packagings and between inner packagings
and the outside of the packaging shall not be reduced below the corresponding thicknesses in
the originally tested packaging; and if a single inner packaging was used in the original test, the
thicknesses of cushioning between inner packagings shall not be less than the thickness of
cushioning between the outside of the packaging and the inner packaging in the original test. If
either fewer or smaller inner packagings are used (as compared to the inner packagings used in
the drop test), sufficient additional cushioning material shall be used to take up void spaces;
(d) The outer packaging shall have passed successfully the stacking test in 188.8.131.52 while empty.
The total mass of identical packages shall be based on the combined mass of inner packagings
used for the drop test in (a) above;
(e) Inner packagings containing liquids shall be completely surrounded with a sufficient quantity
of absorbent material to absorb the entire liquid contents of the inner packagings;
(f) If the outer packaging is intended to contain inner packagings for liquids and is not leakproof,
or is intended to contain inner packagings for solids and is not siftproof, a means of containing
any liquid or solid contents in the event of leakage shall be provided in the form of a leakproof
liner, plastics bag or other equally efficient means of containment. For packagings containing
liquids, the absorbent material required in (e) above shall be placed inside the means of
containing the liquid contents;
(g) Packagings shall be marked in accordance with 6.1.3 as having been tested to packing group I
performance for combination packagings. The marked gross mass in kilograms shall be the
sum of the mass of the outer packaging plus one half of the mass of the inner packaging(s) as
used for the drop test referred to in (a) above. Such a package mark shall also contain a letter
"V" as described in 184.108.40.206.
The competent authority may at any time require proof, by tests in accordance with this section, that
serially-produced packagings meet the requirements of the design type tests. For verification purposes
records of such tests shall be maintained.
If an inner treatment or coating is required for safety reasons, it shall retain its protective properties
even after the tests.
Provided the validity of the test results is not affected and with the approval of the competent
authority, several tests may be made on one sample.
e to packing group II packagings intended for the carriage of solids or inner packagings,
except as follows:
(a) The test substance used in performing the tests shall be water, and the packagings shall be
filled to not less than 98% of their maximum capacity. It is permissible to use additives, such
as bags of lead shot, to achieve the requisite total package mass so long as they are placed so
that the test results are not affected. Alternatively, in performing the drop test, the drop height
may be varied in accordance with 220.127.116.11.5 (b);
(b) Packagings shall, in addition, have been successfully subjected to the leakproofness test
at 30 kPa, with the results of this test reflected in the test report required by 18.104.22.168; and
(c) Packagings shall be marked with the letter "T" as described in 22.214.171.124.
Preparation of packagings for testing
Tests shall be carried out on packagings prepared as for carriage including, with respect to
combination packagings, the inner packagings used. Inner or single receptacles or packagings other
than bags shall be filled to not less than 98% of their maximum capacity for liquids or 95% for solids.
Bags shall be filled to the maximum mass at which they may be used. For combination packagings
where the inner packaging is designed to carry liquids and solids, separate testing is required for both
liquid and solid contents. The substances or articles to be carried in the packagings may be replaced
by other substances or articles except where this would invalidate the results of the tests. For solids,
when another substance is used it shall have the same physical characteristics (mass, grain size, etc.)
as the substance to be carried. It is permissible to use additives, such as bags of lead shot, to achieve
the requisite total package mass, so long as they are placed so that the test results are not affected.