Additional tests for Type A packages designed for liquids and gases

A specimen or separate specimens shall be subjected to each of the following tests unless it can be
demonstrated that one test is more severe for the specimen in question than the other, in which case
one specimen shall be subjected to the more severe test.
(a) Free drop test: The specimen shall drop onto the target so as to suffer the maximum damage in
respect of containment. The height of the drop measured from the lowest part of the specimen
to the upper surface of the target shall be 9 m. The target shall be as defined in 6.4.14;
(b) Penetration test: The specimen shall be subjected to the test specified in 6.4.15.6 except that the
height of drop shall be increased to 1.7 m from the 1 m specified in 6.4.15.6 (b).

Tests for demonstrating ability to withstand accident conditions in carriage

The specimen shall be subjected to the cumulative effects of the tests specified in 6.4.17.2
and 6.4.17.3, in that order. Following these tests, either this specimen or a separate specimen shall be
subjected to the effect(s) of the water immersion test(s) as specified in 6.4.17.4 and, if applicable,
6.4.18.

 
Mechanical test: The mechanical test consists of three different drop tests. Each specimen shall be 
subjected to the applicable drops as specified in 6.4.8.8 or 6.4.11.13. The order in which the 
specimen is subjected to the drops shall be such that, on completion of the mechanical test, the 
specimen shall have suffered such damage as will lead to the maximum damage in the thermal test 
which follows.
 
(a)    For drop I, the specimen shall drop onto the target so as to suffer the maximum damage, and  
   the height of the drop measured from the lowest point of the specimen to the upper surface of 
the target shall be 9 m. The target shall be as defined in 6.4.14;
 
(b)    For drop II, the specimen shall drop onto a bar rigidly mounted perpendicularly on the 
target so as to suffer the maximum damage. The height of the drop measured from the intended point 
of impact of the specimen to the upper surface of the bar shall be 1 m. The bar shall be of solid 
mild steel of circular section, (15.0 cm ± 0.5 cm) in diameter and 20 cm long unless a longer bar 
would cause greater damage, in which case a bar of sufficient length to cause maximum damage shall 
be used. The upper end of the bar shall be flat and horizontal with its edge rounded off to a 
radius of not more than 6 mm. The target on which the bar is mounted shall be as described in 
6.4.14;
 
(c) For drop III, the specimen shall be subjected to a  dynamic  crush  test  by  positioning  the 
specimen on the target so as to suffer maximum damage by the drop of a 500 kg mass from      9 m 
onto the specimen. The mass shall consist of a solid mild steel plate 1 m by 1 m and shall fall in 
a horizontal attitude. The lower face of the steel plate shall have its edges and corners rounded 
off to a radius of not more than 6 mm. The height of the drop shall be measured from the underside 
of the plate to the highest point of the specimen. The target on which the specimen rests shall be 
as defined in 6.4.14.
 

Thermal test: The specimen shall be in thermal equilibrium under conditions of an ambient
temperature of 38 °C, subject to the solar insolation conditions specified in Table 6.4.8.6 and subject
to the design maximum rate of internal heat generation within the package from the radioactive
contents. Alternatively, any of these parameters are allowed to have different values prior to and
during the test, providing due account is taken of them in the subsequent assessment of package
response.
 
The thermal test shall then consist of:
(a) Exposure of a specimen for a period of 30 minutes to a thermal environment which provides a
heat flux at least equivalent to that of a hydrocarbon fuel/air fire in sufficiently quiescent
ambient conditions to give a minimum average flame emissivity coefficient of 0.9 and an
average temperature of at least 800 °C, fully engulfing the specimen, with a surface
absorptivity coefficient of 0.8 or that value which the package may be demonstrated to possess
if exposed to the fire specified, followed by;
(b) Exposure of the specimen to an ambient temperature of 38 °C, subject to the solar insolation
conditions specified in Table 6.4.8.6 and subject to the design maximum rate of internal heat
generation within the package by the radioactive contents for a sufficient period to ensure that
temperatures in the specimen are everywhere decreasing and/or are approaching initial steady
state conditions. Alternatively, any of these parameters are allowed to have different values
following cessation of heating, providing due account is taken of them in the subsequent
assessment of package response.
During and following the test the specimen shall not be artificially cooled and any combustion of
materials of the specimen shall be permitted to proceed naturally.

 

Water immersion test: The specimen shall be immersed under a head of water of at least 15 m for a
period of not less than eight hours in the attitude which will lead to maximum damage. For
demonstration purposes, an external gauge pressure of at least 150 kPa shall be considered to meet
these conditions.

Enhanced water immersion test for Type B(U) and Type B(M) packages containing more than 10^5 A2 and Type C packages

Enhanced water immersion test: The specimen shall be immersed under a head of water of at least
200 m for a period of not less than one hour. For demonstration purposes, an external gauge pressure
of at least 2 MPa shall be considered to meet these conditions.

Water leakage test for packages containing fissile material

Packages for which water in-leakage or out-leakage to the extent which results in greatest reactivity
has been assumed for purposes of assessment under 6.4.11.8 to 6.4.11.13 shall be excepted from the
test.

Before the specimen is subjected to the water leakage test specified below, it shall be subjected to the
tests in 6.4.17.2 (b), and either 6.4.17.2 (a) or (c) as required by 6.4.11.13, and the test specified
in 6.4.17.3.

The specimen shall be immersed under a head of water of at least 0.9 m for a period of not less than 8
hours and in the attitude for which maximum leakage is expected.

Tests for Type C packages

Specimens shall be subjected to the effects of each of the following test sequences in the orders
specified:
(a) The tests specified in 6.4.17.2 (a), 6.4.17.2 (c), 6.4.20.2 and 6.4.20.3; and
(b) The test specified in 6.4.20.4.
Separate specimens are allowed to be used for each of the sequences (a) and (b).

Puncture/tearing test: The specimen shall be subjected to the damaging effects of a vertical solid probe
made of mild steel. The orientation of the package specimen and the impact point on the package
surface shall be such as to cause maximum damage at the conclusion of the test sequence specified
in 6.4.20.1 (a).
 
 
(a)   The specimen, representing a package having a mass less than 250 kg, shall be placed on a    
target and subjected to a probe having a mass of 250 kg falling from a height of 3 m above the 
intended impact point. For this test the probe shall be a 20 cm diameter cylindrical bar with the 
striking end forming a frustum of a right circular cone with the following dimensions: 30 cm height 
and 2.5 cm in diameter at the top with its edge rounded off to a radius of not more than 6 mm. The 
target on which the specimen is placed shall be as specified in 6.4.14;
 
(b)  For packages having a mass of 250 kg or more, the base of the probe shall be placed on a 
target and the specimen dropped onto the probe. The height of the drop, measured from the point of 
impact with the specimen to the upper surface of the probe shall be 3 m. For this test the probe 
shall have the same properties and dimensions as specified in (a) above, except that the length and 
mass of the probe shall be such as to incur maximum damage to the specimen. The target on which the 
base of the probe is placed shall be as specified in 6.4.14.
 

 

Enhanced thermal test: The conditions for this test shall be as specified in 6.4.17.3, except that the
exposure to the thermal environment shall be for a period of 60 minutes.
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