The strength of the material and the construction of the outer casing shall be appropriate to the
capacity of the composite IBC and its intended use.

The outer casing shall be free of any projection that might damage the inner receptacle.

Metal outer casings shall be constructed of a suitable metal of adequate thickness.

Outer casings of natural wood shall be of well seasoned wood, commercially dry and free from
defects that would materially lessen the strength of any part of the casing. The tops and bottoms may
be made of water resistant reconstituted wood such as hardboard, particle board or other suitable type.

Outer casings of plywood shall be made of well seasoned rotary cut, sliced or sawn veneer,
commercially dry and free from defects that would materially lessen the strength of the casing. All
adjacent plies shall be glued with water resistant adhesive. Other suitable materials may be used with
plywood for the construction of casings. Casings shall be firmly nailed or secured to corner posts or
ends or be assembled by equally suitable devices.

The walls of outer casings of reconstituted wood shall be made of water resistant reconstituted wood
such as hardboard, particle board or other suitable type. Other parts of the casings may be made of
other suitable material.

For fibreboard outer casings, strong and good quality solid or double-faced corrugated fibreboard
(single or multiwall) shall be used appropriate to the capacity of the casing and to its intended use.
The water resistance of the outer surface shall be such that the increase in mass, as determined in a
test carried out over 30 minutes by the Cobb method of determining water absorption, is not greater
than 155 g/m2 (see ISO 535:1991). It shall have proper bending qualities. Fibreboard shall be cut,
creased without scoring, and slotted so as to permit assembly without cracking, surface breaks or
undue bending. The fluting of corrugated fibreboard shall be firmly glued to the facings.

The ends of fibreboard outer casings may have a wooden frame or be entirely of wood.
Reinforcements of wooden battens may be used.

Manufacturing joins in the fibreboard outer casing shall be taped, lapped and glued, or lapped and
stitched with metal staples. Lapped joins shall have an appropriate overlap. Where closing is effected
by gluing or taping, a water resistant adhesive shall be used.

Where the outer casing is of plastics material, the relevant requirements of 6.5.5.4.6 to 6.5.5.4.9 apply,
on the understanding that, in this case, the requirements applicable to the inner receptacle are
applicable to the outer casing of composite IBCs.

The outer casing of an IBC type 31HZ2 shall enclose the inner receptacle on all sides.

Any integral pallet base forming part of an IBC or any detachable pallet shall be suitable for
mechanical handling with the IBC filled to its maximum permissible gross mass.

The pallet or integral base shall be designed so as to avoid any protrusion of the base of the IBC that
might be liable to damage in handling.

The outer casing shall be secured to any detachable pallet to ensure stability in handling and carriage.
Where a detachable pallet is used, its top surface shall be free from sharp protrusions that might
damage the IBC.

Strengthening devices such as timber supports to increase stacking performance may be used but shall
be external to the inner receptacle.
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