The walls, including top and bottom, shall have a minimum puncture resistance of 15 J measured
according to ISO 3036:1975.

Manufacturing joins in the outer packaging of large packagings shall be made with an appropriate
overlap and shall be taped, glued, stitched with metal staples or fastened by other means at least
equally effective. Where joins are effected by gluing or taping, a water resistant adhesive shall be
used. Metal staples shall pass completely through all pieces to be fastened and be formed or protected
so that any inner liner cannot be abraded or punctured by them.

Any integral pallet base forming part of a large packaging or any detachable pallet shall be suitable for
mechanical handling with the large packaging filled to its maximum permissible gross mass.

The pallet or integral base shall be designed so as to avoid any protrusion of the base of the large
packaging that might be liable to damage in handling.

The body shall be secured to any detachable pallet to ensure stability in handling and carriage. Where
a detachable pallet is used, its top surface shall be free from sharp protrusions that might damage the
large packaging.

Strengthening devices such as timber supports to increase stacking performance may be used but shall
be external to the liner.

Where large packagings are intended for stacking, the bearing surface shall be such as to distribute the
load in a safe manner.

Specific requirements for wooden large packagings

50C natural wood
50D plywood
50F reconstituted wood

The strength of the materials used and the method of construction shall be appropriate to the capacity
and intended use of the large packagings.

Natural wood shall be well seasoned, commercially dry and free from defects that would materially
lessen the strength of any part of the large packagings. Each part of the large packagings shall consist
of one piece or be equivalent thereto. Parts are considered equivalent to one piece when a suitable
method of glued assembly is used as for instance Lindermann joint, tongue and groove joint, ship lap
or rabbet joint; or butt joint with at least two corrugated metal fasteners at each joint, or when other
methods at least equally effective are used.

Large packagings of plywood shall be at least 3-ply. They shall be made of well seasoned rotary cut,
sliced or sawn veneer, commercially dry and free from defects that would materially lessen the
strength of the large packaging. All adjacent plies shall be glued with water resistant adhesive. Other
suitable materials may be used with plywood for the construction of the large packaging.

Large packagings of reconstituted wood shall be made of water resistant reconstituted wood such as
hardboard, particle board or other suitable type.

Large packagings shall be firmly nailed or secured to corner posts or ends or be assembled by equally
suitable devices.

Any integral pallet base forming part of a large packaging or any detachable pallet shall be suitable for
mechanical handling with the large packaging filled to its maximum permissible gross mass.

The pallet or integral base shall be designed so as to avoid any protrusion of the base of the large
packaging that might be liable to damage in handling.
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