Each large packaging design type shall successfully pass the tests prescribed in this Chapter before
being used. A large packaging design type is defined by the design, size, material and thickness,
manner of construction and packing, but may include various surface treatments. It also includes large
packagings which differ from the design type only in their lesser design height.
Tests shall be repeated on production samples at intervals established by the competent authority. For
such tests on fibreboard large packagings, preparation at ambient conditions is considered equivalent
to the provisions of 126.96.36.199.4.
Tests shall also be repeated after each modification which alters the design, material or manner of
construction of large packagings.
The competent authority may permit the selective testing of large packagings that differ only in minor
respects from a tested type, e.g. smaller sizes of inner packagings or inner packagings of lower net
mass; and large packagings which are produced with small reductions in external dimension(s).
NOTE: For the conditions for assembling different inner packagings in a large packaging and
permissible variations in inner packagings, see 188.8.131.52.1.
The competent authority may at any time require proof, by tests in accordance with this section, that
serially-produced large packagings meet the requirements of the design type tests.
Provided the validity of the test results is not affected and with the approval of the competent
authority, several tests may be made on one sample.
Large salvage packagings
packing group II large packagings intended for the carriage of solids or inner packagings, except as
(a) The test substance used in performing the tests shall be water, and the large salvage packagings
shall be filled to not less than 98% of their maximum capacity. It is permissible to use additives,
such as bags of lead shot, to achieve the requisite total package mass so long as they are placed
so that the test results are not affected. Alternatively, in performing the drop test, the drop height
may be varied in accordance with 184.108.40.206.4.4.2 (b);
(b) Large salvage packagings shall, in addition, have been successfully subjected to the
leakproofness test at 30 kPa, with the results of this test reflected in the test report required by
(c) Large salvage packagings shall be marked with the letter "T" as described in 220.127.116.11.
Preparation for testing
Tests shall be carried out on large packagings prepared as for carriage including the inner packagings
or articles used. Inner packagings shall be filled to not less than 98% of their maximum capacity for
liquids or 95% for solids. For large packagings where the inner packagings are designed to carry
liquids and solids, separate testing is required for both liquid and solid contents. The substances in the
inner packagings or the articles to be carried in the large packagings may be replaced by other
material or articles except where this would invalidate the results of the tests. When other inner
packagings or articles are used they shall have the same physical characteristics (mass, etc) as the
inner packagings or articles to be carried. It is permissible to use additives, such as bags of lead shot,
to achieve the requisite total package mass, so long as they are placed so that the test results are not
In the drop tests for liquids, when another substance is used, it shall be of similar relative density and
viscosity to those of the substance being carried. Water may also be used for the liquid drop test under
the conditions in 18.104.22.168.4.4.
Large packagings made of plastics materials and large packagings containing inner packagings of
plastic materials - other than bags intended to contain solids or articles - shall be drop tested when the
temperature of the test sample and its contents has been reduced to -18 °C or lower. This conditioning
may be disregarded if the materials in question are of sufficient ductility and tensile strength at low
temperatures. Where test sample are prepared in this way, the conditioning in 22.214.171.124.4 may be
waived. Test liquids shall be kept in the liquid state by the addition of anti-freeze if necessary.
Large packagings of fibreboard shall be conditioned for at least 24 hours in an atmosphere having a
controlled temperature and relative humidity (r.h.). There are three options, one of which shall be
The preferred atmosphere is 23 °C ± 2 °C and 50% ± 2% r.h. The two other options are: 20 °C ± 2 °C
and 65% ± 2% r.h.; or 27 °C ± 2 °C and 65% ± 2% r.h.
NOTE: Average values shall fall within these limits. Short term fluctuations and measurement
limitations may cause individual measurements to vary by up to ± 5% relative humidity without
significant impairment of test reproducibility.
Bottom lift test