As far as reasonably practicable, external fittings shall be grouped together. For insulated portable
tanks, top fittings shall be surrounded by a spill collection reservoir with suitable drains.

Each connection to a portable tank shall be clearly marked to indicate its function.

Each stop-valve or other means of closure shall be designed and constructed to a rated pressure not
less than the MAWP of the shell taking into account the temperatures expected during carriage. All
stop-valves with screwed spindles shall close by a clockwise motion of the handwheel. For other
stop-valves the position (open and closed) and direction of closure shall be clearly indicated. All
stop-valves shall be designed to prevent unintentional opening.

No moving parts, such as covers, components of closures, etc., shall be made of unprotected
corrodible steel when they are liable to come into frictional or percussive contact with aluminium
portable tanks intended for the carriage of substances meeting the flash-point criteria of Class 3
including elevated temperature substances carried at or above their flash-point.

Piping shall be designed, constructed and installed so as to avoid the risk of damage due to thermal
expansion and contraction, mechanical shock and vibration. All piping shall be of a suitable metallic
material. Welded pipe joints shall be used wherever possible.

Joints in copper tubing shall be brazed or have an equally strong metal union. The melting point of
brazing materials shall be no lower than 525 °C. The joints shall not decrease the strength of the
tubing as may happen when cutting threads.

The burst pressure of all piping and pipe fittings shall be not less than the highest of four times the
MAWP of the shell or four times the pressure to which it may be subjected in service by the action of
a pump or other device (except pressure-relief devices).

Ductile metals shall be used in the construction of valves and accessories.

The heating system shall be designed or controlled so that a substance cannot reach a temperature at
which the pressure in the tank exceeds its MAWP or causes other hazards (e.g. dangerous thermal

The heating system shall be designed or controlled so that power for internal heating elements shall
not be available unless the heating elements are completely submerged. The temperature at the surface
of the heating elements for internal heating equipment, or the temperature at the shell for external
heating equipment shall, in no case, exceed 80% of the autoignition temperature (in °C) of the
substance carried.

If an electrical heating system is installed inside the tank, it shall be equipped with an earth leakage
circuit breaker with a releasing current of less than 100 mA.

Electrical switch cabinets mounted to tanks shall not have a direct connection to the tank interior and
shall provide protection of at least the equivalent of type IP56 according to IEC 144 or IEC 529.

Bottom openings

Certain substances shall not be carried in portable tanks with bottom openings. When the applicable
portable tank instruction identified in Column (10) of Table A of Chapter 3.2 and described
in indicates that bottom openings are prohibited there shall be no openings below the liquid
level of the shell when it is filled to its maximum permissible filling limit. When an existing opening
is closed it shall be accomplished by internally and externally welding one plate to the shell.

Bottom discharge outlets for portable tanks carrying certain solid, crystallizable or highly viscous
substances shall be equipped with not less than two serially fitted and mutually independent shut-off
devices. The design of the equipment shall be to the satisfaction of the competent authority or its
authorized body and shall include:
(a) An external stop-valve, fitted as close to the shell as reasonably practicable, and so designed as
to prevent any unintended opening through impact or other inadvertent act; and
(b) A liquid tight closure at the end of the discharge pipe, which may be a bolted blank flange or a
screw cap.
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