NOTE: Packagings, including IBCs and large packagings, marked in accordance with 6.1.3, 126.96.36.199, 188.8.131.52, 184.108.40.206, 220.127.116.11, 6.3.4, 6.5.2 or 6.6.3 but which were approved in a country which is not Contracting Party to ADR may nevertheless be used for carriage under ADR.
NOTE: For the packing of goods of Classes 2, 6.2 and 7, the general provisions of this section only apply as indicated in 18.104.22.168 (Class 6.2), 22.214.171.124.5 (Class 7) and in the applicable packing instructions of 4.1.4 (P201 and LP200 for Class 2 and P620, P621, IBC620 and LP621 for Class 6.2).
Dangerous goods shall be packed in good quality packagings, including IBCs and large packagings, which shall be strong enough to withstand the shocks and loadings normally encountered during carriage, including trans-shipment between cargo transport units and between cargo transport units and warehouses as well as any removal from a pallet or overpack for subsequent manual or mechanical handling. Packagings, including IBCs and large packagings, shall be constructed and closed so as to prevent any loss of contents when prepared for transport which might be caused under normal conditions of transport, by vibration, or by changes in temperature, humidity or pressure (resulting from altitude, for example). Packagings, including IBCs and large packagings, shall be closed in accordance with the information provided by the manufacturer. No dangerous residue shall adhere to the outside of packagings, IBCs and large packagings during carriage. These provisions apply, as appropriate, to new, reused, reconditioned or remanufactured packagings and to new, reused, repaired or remanufactured IBCs, and to new, reused or remanufactured large packagings.
Parts of packagings, including IBCs and large packagings, which are in direct contact with dangerous goods:
(a) shall not be affected or significantly weakened by those dangerous goods;
(b) shall not cause a dangerous effect e.g. catalysing a reaction or reacting with the dangerous goods; and
(c) shall not allow permeation of the dangerous goods that could constitute a danger under normal conditions of carriage.
Where necessary, they shall be provided with a suitable inner coating or treatment.
NOTE: For chemical compatibility of plastics packagings, including IBCs, made from polyethylene see 126.96.36.199.
Unless otherwise provided elsewhere in ADR, each packaging, including IBCs and large packagings, except inner packagings, shall conform to a design type successfully tested in accordance with the requirements of 6.1.5, 6.3.5, 6.5.6 or 6.6.5, as applicable. The packagings for which the test is not required are mentioned under 188.8.131.52.
Büyük ambalajlar ve IBC'ler dâhil ambalajlar sıvı ile doldurulurken, taşıma esnasında sıcaklığa bağlı olarak sıvının genleşmesinden kaynaklanabilecek bir sızıntı veya kalıcı şekil bozukluğunun önlenmesi için yeterli boşluk (fire) bırakılır. Özel zorunluluklar belirtilmedikçe, sıvılar 55 °C sıcaklıkta bir ambalajı tamamen dolduramaz. Bununla birlikte, 50 °C ortalama dökme sıcaklığında, su kapasitesinin %98'inden daha fazla doldurulmamasını temin etmek için bir IBC'de yeterli boşluk bırakılmalıdır. 15 °C doldurma sıcaklığı için, azami doldurma derecesi, aksi belirtilmedikçe aşağıdaki iki yöntemden biriyle belirlenecektir:
Boiling point (initial boiling point) of the substance in °C
Degree of filling as a percentage of the capacity of the packaging
(b) degree of filling = % of the capacity of the packaging.
In this formula α represents the mean coefficient of cubic expansion of the liquid substance between 15 °C and 50 °C; that is to say, for a maximum rise in temperature of 35 °C,
α is calculated according to the formula:
d15 and d50 being the relative densities1 of the liquid at 15 °C and 50 °C and tf the mean temperature of the liquid at the time of filling.
Inner packagings shall be packed in an outer packaging in such a way that, under normal conditions of carriage, they cannot break, be punctured or leak their contents into the outer packaging. Inner packagings containing liquids shall be packed with their closures upward and placed within outer packagings consistent with the orientation marks prescribed in 184.108.40.206. Inner packagings that are liable to break or be punctured easily, such as those made of glass, porcelain or stoneware or of certain plastics materials, etc., shall be secured in outer packagings with suitable cushioning material. Any leakage of the contents shall not substantially impair the protective properties of the cushioning material or of the outer packaging.
Where an outer packaging of a combination packaging or a large packaging has been successfully tested with different types of inner packagings, a variety of such different inner packagings may also be assembled in this outer packaging or large packaging. In addition, provided an equivalent level of performance is maintained, the following variations in inner packagings are allowed without further testing of the package:
(a) Inner packagings of equivalent or smaller size may be used provided:
(i) the inner packagings are of similar design to the tested inner packagings (e.g. shape - round, rectangular, etc.);
(ii) the material of construction of the inner packagings (glass, plastics, metal, etc.) offers resistance to impact and stacking forces equal to or greater than that of the originally tested inner packaging;
(iii) the inner packagings have the same or smaller openings and the closure is of similar design (e.g. screw cap, friction lid, etc.);
(iv) sufficient additional cushioning material is used to take up void spaces and to prevent significant movement of the inner packagings; and
(v) inner packagings are oriented within the outer packaging in the same manner as in the tested package.
(b) A lesser number of the tested inner packagings, or of the alternative types of inner packagings identified in (a) above, may be used provided sufficient cushioning is added to fill the void space(s) and to prevent significant movement of the inner packagings.
Use of supplementary packagings within an outer packaging (e.g. an intermediate packaging or a receptacle inside a required inner packaging) additional to what is required by the packing instructions is authorized provided all relevant requirements are met, including those of 220.127.116.11, and, if appropriate, suitable cushioning is used to prevent movement within the packaging.
Dangerous goods shall not be packed together in the same outer packaging or in large packagings, with dangerous or other goods if they react dangerously with each other and cause:
(a) combustion or evolution of considerable heat;
(b) evolution of flammable, asphyxiant, oxidizing or toxic gases;
(c) the formation of corrosive substances; or
(d) the formation of unstable substances.
NOTE: For mixed packing special provisions, see 4.1.10.
1 Relative density (d) is considered to be synonymous with specific gravity (SG) and will be used throughout this Chapter.
The closures of packagings containing wetted or diluted substances shall be such that the percentage of liquid (water, solvent or phlegmatizer) does not fall below the prescribed limits during transport.
Where two or more closure systems are fitted in series on an IBC, that nearest to the substance being carried shall be closed first.
Where pressure may develop in a package by the emission of gas from the contents (as a result of temperature increase or other causes), the packaging or IBC may be fitted with a vent provided that the gas emitted will not cause danger on account of its toxicity, its flammability or the quantity released, for example.
A venting device shall be fitted if dangerous overpressure may develop due to normal decomposition of substances. The vent shall be so designed that, when the packaging or IBC is in the attitude in which it is intended to be carried, leakages of liquid and the penetration of foreign substances are prevented under normal conditions of carriage.
NOTE: Venting of the package is not permitted for air carriage.
Liquids may only be filled into inner packagings which have an appropriate resistance to internal pressure that may be developed under normal conditions of carriage.